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Mini Dragon Group (ages 6-7)

Public·12 members
Mahmood Vorobyov
Mahmood Vorobyov

The Sacred War (instrumental)



Caesar fought in Gaul to extend and build on the very sources of meaning and belonging that constituted Roman identity, and so he became indissolubly connected with each individual Roman citizen in this sacred process. The Gallic war immortally embedded Caesar in his society through ritual and symbol.




The Sacred War (instrumental)



These deals (see Methods) were all hypothetical, but involved compromises that are broadly typical of the types of solutions that are frequently offered within political discourse in the region. In our experiments, all participants were opposed to compromise over these issues. In addition, a subset of participants indicated that they had transformed this preference into a sacred value, opposing any tradeoff over the relevant issue in exchange for peace no matter how great the benefit to their people.


In each experiment, one-third of our participants were randomly selected to respond to a peace deal that involved a significant compromise over an important issue in exchange for peace (Taboo deal, see Methods). For example, Israeli settlers responded to deals that entailed Israeli withdrawal from 99% of the West Bank and Gaza in exchange for peace, Palestinian refugees responded to deals that violated the Palestinian right of return, and Palestinian students responded to a deal that called for the recognition of the legitimacy of the State of Israel. For the moral-absolutists, these deals involved a taboo tradeoff (19) over sacred values; for the non-absolutists, these deals involved compromise over strong preferences (20). Another third of our participants were randomly selected to respond to the same taboo deal with an added instrumental incentive, such as money or a life free of violence (Taboo+). The remainder of our participants responded to the taboo deal without an added instrumental incentive but where the adversary also made a taboo tradeoff over one of their own sacred values in a manner that was designed to not add instrumental value to the deal nor detract from the taboo nature of the deal (Symbolic).


Palestinians responded to either Taboo peace deals or Taboo+ peace deals, which were taboo deals with an added material incentive such as money. (a and b) Palestinian recognition of the sacred right of Israel. (c and d) Compromising Palestinian sovereignty over East Jerusalem. Ironically, adding material incentives to compromise yielded more anger and disgust (a and c) and greater support for violent opposition (b and d) from moral-absolutists for whom deals involved compromises over sacred values. In contrast, non-absolutists for whom deals involved compromises over strong preferences behaved in an instrumentally rational manner; adding material incentives resulted in less opposition to compromise. All measures were mean centered, and error bars report standard errors. In experiments with Israeli settlers the same pattern emerged.


Although added instrumental benefits increased opposition to compromises over sacred values, we found that opposition decreased when the deal included the adversary making a symbolic compromise over one of their own sacred values (see Fig. 2). This pattern was observed for: (i) measures of emotional outrage to peace deals among moral-absolutist Palestinian students (all P values


Reponse to peace deals. (a and b) Moral-absolutist Israeli settlers. (c and d) Moral-absolutist Palestinian refugees. Moral-absolutists were less likely to respond with anger or disgust (moral-absolutist Israeli settlers in a), less likely to feel joy when hearing about a suicide attack (moral-absolutist Palestinian refugees in c), and predicted lower in-group support for violent opposition (both populations in b and d) when responding to peace deals involving compromises over their sacred values (Taboo) if the adversary made symbolic compromises over one of their own sacred values (Symbolic). All measures were centered on the grand mean, and error bars report standard errors. We found the same results for affective responses of Palestinian students.


"The preservation of the sacred fire of Liberty, and the destiny of the Republican model of Government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people." George Washington


Born 1809, died 1865. Lincoln held the nation together during its greatest trial, the Civil War. Lincoln believed his most sacred duty was the preservation of the union. It was his firm conviction that slavery must be abolished. Gutzon Borglum chose Lincoln to represent the preservation of the United States.


There are many stones and boulders scattered throughout Oneida and Madison counties related to the Oneida Indian Nation, and as the People of the Standing Stone, we are forever tied to these monoliths. Many people are aware of two prominent stones: The stone located at Nichols Pond named by Henry Schoolcraft to be our sacred stone and the Oneida Stone currently located outside of the Council House on Territory Road that used to sit in the Forest Hills Cemetery in Utica, NY. There are other stones in New York State that were used by the Haudenosaunee as trail markers or territorial boundary indicators, and some Nation Members place stones in their yards or near their homes as a way of tying themselves to our history and the land. The Skenandoah Boulder should also be included in this list of prominent stones as it is an important marker distinguishing a man who was instrumental in the perseverance of our people.


Consists of over 15,000 pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the years 1820 to 1860. This collection complements an earlier American Memory project, Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music 1870-1885 as well as the Band Music from the Civil War Era and Sheet Music from the Civil War Era. Included are popular songs, operatic arias, piano music, sacred and secular vocal music, solo instrumental music, method books and instructional materials, and some music for band and orchestra. This collection of American and European composers provides an interesting chronicle of the developments in the music publishing business in the nineteenth-century United States. Other notable elements include the burgeoning popularity of the polka, as well as the songs of Stephen Collins Foster (1826-64), who composed such as favorites as "Susanna," "The Old Folks at Home," and "Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair." Songs in this collection also reflect the growing fame of performers such as the singing Hutchinson family and the first American tour (arranged by P. T. Barnum) of soprano Jenny Lind, the "Swedish nightingale." This collection reflects the development of popular song in America.


  • The statements of Pope Pius XI appear only after twenty-five years of effort to apply the reform of Pius X had failed to dispel from certain areas the splendor and theatrical spirit of the affective style. His statements might well be read in this context. In his Divini Cultus of 1929 he disapproved of an "immoderate use of instruments," and pointed out the fact that "the Church does not look upon singing which is supported by an orchestra as a more perfect form of music and more suited to the sacred actions."50 He makes it clear that the Church is not opposing the progress of music in preferring the human voice to any instrument, "for no instrument can surpass the human voice in expressing emotion."51 The late Pope Pius XII devoted much effort to the progress of the arts in the liturgy. The subject of musical instruments drew his special attention. It is in his Christmas Message of 1955 that we find his ideas expressed in clear detail. His is no mere attitude of tolerance. The Pontiff applies to the use of musical instruments the words of Pius X, "[The Church] unceasingly encourages and favors the progress of the arts, admitting for religious use all the good and the beautiful that the mind of man has discovered over the course of the centuries, but always respecting the liturgical laws."52 After stating that the organ holds the first place, he says that "other instruments can be called upon to give great help in attaining the lofty purpose of sacred music, so long as they plan nothing profane, nothing clamorous or strident and nothing at variance with sacred services or the dignity of the place."53 He points out that stringed instruments played with the bow are very fitting since "they express the joyous and sad sentiments of the soul with an indescribable power."54 He closes his treatment of musical instruments with a warning that they should not be used unless the resources available be equal to the task of performance. By far the most complete treatment of this subject to date is contained in the Instruction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, published on September 3, 1958 shortly before the death of Pope Pius XII. 55 Musical instruments are no longer spoken of in terms of toleration. On the contrary,, their use is presumed by the Instruction, and almost every reference to the organ includes a reference to "other musical instruments." After stating a few general principles (that no instrument is to be used to accompany the celebrant and the times when all instruments are to remain silent), the Instruction lays down three principles for the use of musical instruments in the Sacred Liturgy: The use of any instrument should in itself be perfect: "It is better to do something well on a small scale than to attempt something elaborate without sufficient resources to do it properly."56

  • The difference between sacred and profane music is to be preserved: "Some musical instruments by origin and nature-- such as the classical organ--are directly fitted for sacred music; or others, as certain string and bow instruments, are more easily adapted to liturgical use; while others, instead, are by common opinion proper to profane m